Color field painting Stanley Boxer

Stanley Boxer (1926-May 8, 2000) was an American artist best known for thickly painted abstract works of art. He was also an accomplished sculptor and printmaker.
Boxer was born in New York City, and began his formal education after World War II, when he left the Navy and studied at the Art Students League of New York. He drew, painted, made prints, and sculpted. His work was recognized by art critic Clement Greenberg, who categorized him as a color field painter, a designation which Boxer rejected. Art critic Grace Glueck wrote «Never part of a movement or trend, though obviously steeped in the language of Modernism, the abstract painter Stanley Boxer was a superb manipulator of surfaces, intensely bonding texture and color.»
Boxer offered an explanation of his philosophy and working process:
    In the manufacture of my art, I use anything and everything which gets the job done without any sentiment or sancity as to medium. Then, too, I have deliberately made a practice of being «visionless»… this is, I go where my preceding art takes me, and never try to redirect the future as to what my art should look like. This is a general credo and foundation for everything I have ever done and stands firm in its solidity as this is written.
In 1953 Boxer had his first solo exhibition of paintings in New York City, and showed regularly thereafter until his death. His paintings and sculpture were represented in New York City during the late 1960s through 1974 by the Tibor de Nagy Gallery, then by the André Emmerich Gallery from 1975 until 1993, and finally by Salander-O'Reilly Galleries until its demise in 2007 .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Fine art Photography - J.D. 'Okhai Ojeikere

Johnson Donatus Aihumekeokhai Ojeikere (1930 – 2 February 2014), known as J.D. 'Okhai Ojeikere, was a Nigerian photographer who is known for his work with unique hairstyles found in Nigeria.Ojeikere was born in 1930 in Ovbiomu-Emai, a rural village in south-western Nigeria. He worked and lived in Ketu, Nigeria. At the age of 20 he pursued photography, which was out of the ordinary Ojeikere for people in Nigeria, especially those in his village. Cameras were not in high demand and were of low priority as they were considered a luxury. However in 1950 bought a modest Brownie D camera without flash, and had a friend teach him the fundamentals of photography.
Ojeikere started out as a darkroom assistant in 1954 at the Ministry of Information in Ibadan. After Nigeria gained its independence in 1960, Ojeikere pursued his first job as a photographer. In 1961 he became a studio photographer, under Steve Rhodes, for Television House Ibadan. From 1963 to 1975 Ojeikere worked in publicity at West Africa Publicity in Lagos. In 1967 he joined the Nigerian Arts Council. In 1968 he began one of his largest projects as he documented Nigerian hairstyles. This was a hallmark of Ojeikere's work and he printed approximately a thousand pictures of different African women's hair.A large selection of Ojeikere's work was included in the arsenale section of the 55th Venice Biennale d'arte, «Il Palazzo Enciclopedia» curated by Massimiliano Gioni in 2013.Ojeikere died on 2 February 2014, at the age of 83. He is the subject of a documentary film by Tam Fiofori entitled J. D. ‘Okhai Ojeikere: Master Photographer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Giuseppe Santomaso - abstract painting

«Giuseppe Santomaso was born in Venice on September 26, 1907. He studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti there from 1932 to 1934. In 1938 he began his work in graphics, a medium that continued to interest him. In 1939 the artist traveled to Paris on the occasion of his first solo exhibition at the Galerie Rive Gauche. Santomaso participated in the Quadriennale of Rome in 1943 and executed illustrations for Paul Eluard’s Grand Air in 1945. In 1946 he was a founding member of the antifascist artists’ organization Nuova Secessione Artistica Italiana–Fronte Nuovo delle Arti in Venice.
Since 1948 Santomaso has participated often in the Venice Biennale, where he was awarded the Prize of the Municipality of Venice in 1948 and First Prize for Italian Painting in 1954. He received the Graziano Prize from the Galleria del Naviglio in Milan in 1956 and the Marzotto Prize at the Mostra internazionale di pittura contemporanea in Valdagno in 1958, among other awards. Santomaso taught at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice from 1957 to 1975. His first exhibition in the United States was held at the Grace Borgenicht Gallery in New York in 1957. The Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam gave the artist a solo exhibition in 1960. In 1961 he participated in the São Paulo Bienal and he traveled to Brazil the following year. A Santomaso retrospective toured from the Kunstverein in Hamburg to the Haus am Lützowplatz in Berlin and the Museum am Ostwall in Dortmund in 1965–66. He contributed lithographs to On Angle, a book of Ezra Pound’s poetry published in 1971. His work appeared in the International Engraving Biennial in Cracow in 1972 and 1978. Solo exhibitions of his work were presented in 1979 by the Fondacio Joan Miró in Barcelona and the Staatsgalerie Moderner Kunst in Munich. The Borgenicht Gallery organized a Santomaso show for the spring of 1983. Santomaso died on May 23, 1990, in Venice.»

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Master of Surrealism Leonora Carrington

«In Self-Portrait (1938), Carrington offers her own interpretation of female sexuality by looking toward her own sexual reality rather than theorizing on the subject, as was custom by other Surrealists in the movement. Carrington’s move away from the characterization of female sexuality subverted the traditional male role of the Surrealist movement. Self-Portrait (1938) also offers insight into Carrington’s interest in the ‘alchemical transformation of matter and her response to the Surrealist cult of desire as a source of creative inspiration.’ The hyena depicted in Self-Portrait (1938) joins both male and female into a whole, metaphoric of the worlds of the night and the dream. The symbol of the hyena is present in many of Carrington's later works, and it was even used to depict Carrington in Max Ernst's work „La Debutante“ in his book The Oval Lady.Her book The Hearing Trumpet deals with aging and the female body. It follows the story of older women who, in the words of Madeleine Cottenet-Hage in her essay „The Body Subversive: Corporeal Imagery in Carrington, Prassinos and Mansour“, seek to destroy the institutions of their imaginative society to usher in a „spirit of sisterhood.“ The Hearing Trumpet also criticizes the shaming of the nude female body, and it is believed to be one of the first books to tackle the notion of gender identity in the twenty-first century. Carrington's views of sexuality, however, differ from contemporary feminists in that she sees maternity as a key experience to femininity. Carrington stated, „We, women, are animals conditioned by maternity… For female animals love-making, which is followed by the great drama of the birth of a new animal, pushes us into the depths of the biological cave“Carrington's art often depicts horses, as in her Self-Portrait (Inn of the Dawn Horse) and the painting The Horses of Lord Candlestick Her fascination with drawing horses began in her childhood. Horses also appear in her writings. In her first published short story, „The House of Fear“, Carrington portrays a horse in the role of a psychic guide to a young heroine. In 1935, Carrington's first essay, „Jezzamathatics or Introduction to the Wonderful Process of Painting“, was published before her story „The Seventh Horse“. Carrington often used codes of words to dictate interpretation in her artwork. „Candlestick“ is a code that she commonly used to represent her family, and the word „lord“ for her father»

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Grace Hartigan - The Second Generation Abstract Expressionist

«Hartigan was born in Newark, New Jersey, in 1922. As a child, she was close to her grandmother and her aunt, both of whom encouraged her creativity with stories and folktales. Hartigan was later involved with her high school drama program and wanted to be an actress. She married at 17 to Robert Jachens because, she claimed, he was the first boy to read poetry to her. Wanting to escape their narrow upbringing, the couple headed for Alaska to homestead. They got as far as Los Angeles before they ran out of money and Hartigan found out she was pregnant with her only child, Jeffrey. She took a few painting classes before they returned to New Jersey. When Robert was drafted to fight in World War II, Hartigan lived with his parents and got a job as a mechanical draughtsman to support herself and her son. She was sent to the Newark College of Engineering for on-the-job training. It was during this period, after she and her husband separated, that a friend introduced her to the works of Henri Matisse and she began taking art courses from a local artist named Isaac Lane Muse.»


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Varujan Boghosian - between dream and reality

Varujan Yegan Boghosian (born 1926 New Britain, Connecticut) is an American artist, best known for his sculptures and assemblages. Since 1958 he has held teaching positions at the University of Florida, Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, Yale University, Brown University and Dartmouth College. At Dartmouth, Boghosian was a member of the art faculty from 1968 to 1995. He was awarded an endowed position as the George Frederick Jewett Professor of Art in 1982. Boghosian retired from Dartmouth in 1995 and has since continued his work as a practicing artist.
Boghosian is represented by Berta Walker Gallery in Provincetown and Wellfleet as well as Kent Fine Art in New York.Boghosian's art draws inspiration from a variety of sources including literature, art, history and music. Allusions to myth and poetry pervade his work. Explorations of the myths of Orpheus and Eurydice, for instance, have been a central and continuous theme throughout his career. Closely linked to this fascination with classical myth is Boghosian's recurring use of symbols such as swans and serpents, both of which are rooted in a strong tradition of cross-cultural mythology.
Building upon the traditions of Surrealism and Dada Boghosian's assemblages and collages playfully contemplate the boundaries between dream and reality. In creating his art, Boghosian draws heavily on his extensive personal archive of found objects, gathered together in his home and studio. The images and objects that he utilizes often bear the mark of time and his creations frequently juxtapose groups of seemingly unrelated objects together. In describing his artistic process, Boghosian is quoted as saying «I don't make anything. I find everything.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Action painting Franz Kline

Franz Kline (May 23, 1910 – May 13, 1962) was an American painter born in Pennsylvania. He is mainly associated with the Abstract Expressionist movement of the 1940s and 1950s. Kline, along with other action painters like Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Robert Motherwell and Lee Krasner, as well as local poets, dancers, and musicians came to be known as the informal group, the New York School. Although he explored the same innovations to painting as the other artists in this group, Kline's work is distinct in itself and has been revered since the 1950s.
Kline is recognized as one of the most important yet problematic artists of the Abstract Expressionist movement in New York. His style is difficult for critics to interpret in relation to his contemporaries.[14] As with Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, and other Abstract Expressionists, Kline was said to be an action painter because of his seemingly spontaneous and intense style, focusing not at all on figures or imagery, but on the expression of his brushstrokes and use of canvas.[citation needed] However, Kline's paintings are deceptively subtle. While generally his paintings have a spontaneous, and dramatic impact, Kline often closely referred to his compositional drawings. Kline carefully rendered many of his most complex pictures from extensive studies, commonly created on refuse telephone book pages. Unlike his fellow Abstract Expressionists, Kline's works were only meant to look like they were done in a moment of inspiration; however, each painting was extensively explored before his housepainter's brush touched the canvas.
Kline was also known for avoiding giving meaning to his paintings, unlike his colleagues who would give mystical descriptions of their works.In a catalog of Kline's works, art historian Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev writes that «his art both suggests and denies significance and meaning.»Many of his works have been viewed by art historians as indications of a progression towards minimalist painting. They believe that his works hold an objective opacity and frankness that differs from the subjectivity involved with the New York School's style. This would make his work more similar to the avant-garde platforms like minimalism that replaced the Abstract Expressionist movement in the 1960s.Art historian David Anfam notes that artists working during Kline's life and after—such as Robert Rauschenberg, Cy Twombly, Mark di Suvero, and Brice Marden—have all called Kline an inspiration

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Magic realism & fantastic art Bridget Bate Tichenor

Bridget Bate Tichenor (born Bridget Pamela Arkwright Bate on November 22, 1917 – died on October 20, 1990), also known as Bridget Tichenor or B.B.T., was a Mexican surrealist painter of fantastic art in the school of magic realism and a fashion editor. Born in Paris and of British descent, she later embraced Mexico as her home.Bate was the daughter of Frederick Blantford Bate (c1886-1970) and Vera Nina Arkwright (1883-1948), who was also known as Vera Bate Lombardi. Although born in France, she spent her youth in England and attended schools in England, France, and Italy. She moved to Paris at age 16, to live with her mother, where she worked as a model for Coco Chanel. She lived between Rome and Paris from 1930 until 1938.
Fred Bate carefully guided his daughter with her art. He recommended she attend the Slade School in London, and visited her later at the Contembo Ranch in Mexico. Fred Bate's close friend, surrealist photographer Man Ray, photographed her at different stages of her modeling career from Paris to New York.
Vera Bate Lombardi is said to have been the public relations liaison to the royal families of Europe for Coco Chanel between 1925 and 1938. Her grandmother, Rosa Frederica Baring (1854-1927) was a member of the Baring banking family, being a great granddaughter of Sir Francis Baring (1740-1810), the founder of Barings Bank, and Bridget Bate was therefore related to many British and European aristocratic families.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Abstract expressionism Emil Schumacher

«Emil Schumacher, born in the Westphalian town of Hagen in 1912, began a three-year degree at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Dortmund when he was 20 years old. He started working as an independent artist in 1935 and founded the artist and exhibition association „junger westen“ in 1947 together with a few other artists. The style of his work changed drastically in 1950.
He abandoned painting objects and turned towards the expressive power of painting alone. Colour itself gradually became the decisive element of his works. This biographical artistic process happened during a period, which was determined by the French École de Paris, Tachism and American Action Painting. While abstraction itself was typical of this period, it also became a typical aspect of Emil Schumacher's personal style.During the late 1960s and early 1970s Schumacher experimented with a rigorous type of action painting, which is reflected above all in his „Hammerbilder“ (Hammer Paintings). The injury and damage to the picture support was to him a means of employing destruction itself as a pictorial phenomenon in art. After exhibiting at the „documenta III“ in Kassel in 1964 he created extremely large works, which manifest an extreme painterly freedom. This phase lasted until the 1980s. His latest works of the 1990s, with figurative reminiscences, have clearly overcome the contrast between abstraction and the figurative.
Emil Schumacher became internationally known and praised around the middle of the 1950s as one of the most important artists of the Informel. He was awarded numerous international prizes, of which the Guggenheim Award in New York in 1958 was only the beginning. He was appointed professor at the „Hochschule für Bildende Künste“ in Hamburg in the same year, accepted a post as professor in Karlsruhe in 1966 and taught as a guest professor at the university in Minneapolis/USA in 1967 for one year. The „Deutscher Bundestag“ honoured him in 1998 by commissioning a mural for the Reichstag building in Berlin.
Emil Schumacher died in San José on 4 October 1999, one year after the large retrospective exhibition in Munich.»

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Lyrical abstraction Jean Miotte

Jean Miotte (8 September 1926 – 1 March 2016) was a French abstract painter, in the style known as l'abstraction lyrique. He was born in Paris.Miotte's work is preserved and studied at the Miotte Foundation, which occupied the third floor of the Chelsea Art Museum in Manhattan, New York.Miotte came of artistic age in war-torn Europe in the decade after World War II, when non-figurative, gestural abstraction was emerging on both sides of the Atlantic as the dominant language in contemporary art. Seeking what has been termed art autre, artists such as Kazuo Shiraga, Jean-Paul Riopelle, Emil Schumacher, and Miotte championed the individual freedom of the artist as expressed through gestural brushstrokes and thick pools of color. As Miotte has commented, “My painting is a projection, a succession of acute moments where creation occurs in the midst of spiritual tension and as a result of inner conflicts.”Miotte experiments in media ranging from oil to acrylic, gouache, ink, etching, lithography, and collage. His use of black paint on a white or raw surface frequently recalls calligraphy; when color appears, it ranges from primaries to earthy tones. Critics say he is unique among the Informels because he continues to grow, fighting repetition, questioning himself and his form of expression. In the 1990s he began producing the canvases currently on display, the largest of his career.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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